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Literature Database (Feb-Apr 2023)


Update and compilation of recent academic research and reports in the area of equality rights

Gender-based Violence 性別暴力

Gender-based Violence 性別暴力

1. Sexual Violence 性暴力


Burgstedt, Corinna et al. "Does Gender Affect Judges’ Perceptions of Sexual Assault Cases?" 

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 38, issue 1-2, 2023, pp. 466-508.



There is growing recognition that females engage in harmful sexual behaviour that is similar in severity and type to males. Existing research, however, suggests that there is a bias towards leniency in judicial systems for female sexual offenders (FSOs) in comparison to male sexual offenders (MSOs). Specifically, FSOs receive shorter sentences than do MSOs and are less likely to be sentenced to prison. The majority of research examining disparity in sentence outcomes for FSOs have been analysed through a quantitative lens. Qualitative methodology is also needed to understand any subjective differences in the way that judges perceive case-relevant factors and whether these perceptions differ as a function of the offender’s gender. The present study is a qualitative study that examined judges’ perceptions and descriptions of FSO compared to MSO in 10 matched cases of sexual offending. The study found that although there were many similarities in how judges perceived FSO compared to MSO, there were also unique differences that could explain more lenient sentences for FSOs (i.e. the vulnerability, poor mental health and adverse backgrounds of FSOs). Other unique differences found were that judges’ perception of FSOs behaviour was described as depraved and cruel, whereas MSOs similar behaviour was not described in such an emotive way. The present study provides additional insight into the reasons for a bias towards leniency for FSOs. In particular, it points towards judicial focus on particular personal circumstances that are seen as relevant in sentencing FSOs but not for MSOs.

Li, Xiaomin, et al. "Understanding, Experience, and Response Strategies to Sexual Harassment Among Chinese College Students."

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 38, issue 3-4, 2023, pp. 2337-2359.



Sexual harassment is a serious problem, and with a growing population of college students in China, the phenomenon is becoming prevalent. Using the 2010 data from the Third Survey on Chinese Women’s Social Status, we examined relationships between understanding of sexual harassment and experience/response among Chinese college students. The results show that college students understand physical sexual harassment better (88%; unwanted sexual requests: 92%) than verbal and visual sexual harassment (54% and 70%, respectively). Understanding is higher among females than males, with a margin between eight to 21%. At a prevalence of 30%, the experience of verbal sexual harassment is the highest compared to other forms of harassment. Males were more likely to experience verbal and visual sexual harassment, while females were more likely to experience physical sexual harassment. In any event of sexual harassment, expressing dissatisfaction and stopping it is the response strategy that most resonates with respondents. It varied between 62% and 70% across forms of sexual harassment. Reporting to teachers or school authorities resonates least, varying between 0.30% and 2.28%. Understanding sexual harassment was strongly associated with a reduced likelihood of harassment. The equivalent odds ratios varied between 0.41 and 0.33 (p < .001), or 59–67% reduced likelihood across the forms of sexual harassment. Understanding sexual harassment was also strongly associated with an increased likelihood of not reacting passively or staying silent. Odds ratio varied between 1.99 and 3.86 (p < .001), about a minimum of twofold increased likelihood. Parents should strive to involve in their children’s sex and sexual rights education, particularly during adolescence, to help them inculcate values against sexual harassment. Also, colleges and universities can bolster their curriculum with elective courses on sex education and regularly organize symposiums on sexual harassment to create a better understanding and awareness among students.


2. Domestic/Intimate Partner Violence 家庭/親密伴侶暴力


Mehfooz, Musferah et al. "Does Childhood Experience of Interparental Abuse Shape Women’s Attitude Toward Intimate Partner Violence in Their Adult Life? Evidence From 31 Developing Countries."

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 38, issue 7-8, 2023, pp. 5490-5518.



A significant amount of literature exists on the lasting effects of interparental abuse on children’s psychological health as adults. However, evidence on how children’s childhood experience of interparental violence shapes their attitude toward partner violence in adult intimate relationships is limited. Given the existing evidence that women’s acceptance of partner violence as a social norm increases the risk of partner violence, we analyzed the effect of girls’ witnessing interparental abuse (where a father is a perpetrator) on their attitude toward partner violence in their intimate relationships as adults. We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for 31 low and middle-income countries in Asia and Africa. Aggregating information about women’s attitudes toward partner violence into a binary "intimate partner violence acceptance" variable, we found that a woman who witnessed her father beat her mother was 1.62 times more likely to justify partner violence than a woman who did not experience such interparental abuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62, 95% CI [1.57, 1.66], p < .001). Additionally, using individual components of acceptance as response variables, we found that a woman who witnessed interparental abuse was significantly more likely to justify partner violence if she went out without telling her husband (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.45, 1.54], p < .001), neglected children (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.49, 1.58], p < .001), argued with the husband (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.45, 1.53], p < .001), refused sex with the husband (OR = 1.35, 95% CI [1.31, 1.39], p < .001), or burned food (OR = 1.36, 95% CI [1.31, 1.41], p < .001). This study highlights the need to put in place children-specific social policies to limit the intergenerational transmission of the adverse effects of intimate partner violence.

Sullivan, Cris M., et al. "Impact of the Domestic Violence Housing First Model on Survivors’ Safety and Housing Stability: 12-Month Findings."

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 38, issue 5-6, 2023, pp. 4790-4813.



Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread and devastating phenomenon resulting in a myriad of long-term consequences for survivors and their children. IPV victimization not only has negative health and economic consequences, it has also been linked to homelessness and housing instability. In response, the Domestic Violence Housing First (DVHF) model is being used in some domestic violence (DV) agencies to help survivors attain safe and stable housing. The model includes using individualized advocacy and/or flexible funding to help survivors meet these goals. Using a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design, the current study involved conducting interviews with survivors and examining agency records to investigate the effectiveness of this model. We hypothesized that survivors who received DVHF would experience less re-abuse and greater housing stability over 12 months compared to those who received services as usual (SAU). The sample included 345 IPV survivors who had been homeless or unstably housed when they approached one of five DV programs for help. Interviews were spaced 6 months apart (when survivors first sought services as well as 6 months and 12 months later). Longitudinal analyses showed that survivors who received the DVHF model reported greater improvements in housing stability at both the 6-month and 12-month time points compared to those receiving SAU. At the 12-month time point, survivors who had received DVHF reported decreased physical, psychological, and economic abuse, as well as the use of their children against them as a form of abuse. This study adds to a growing body of evidence supporting this model’s effectiveness and adds to our understanding of factors impacting the long-term housing stability and safety for IPV survivors.

Cao, Jiepin et al. "Trapped in My Roles as a Woman With No Help: Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence Against Chinese Women."

Violence Against Women, vol. 29, issue 5, 2023, pp. 964–986. 



An understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences is a crucial first step toward shaping effective responses. However, relevant knowledge among Chinese women is scant. This study described Chinese women’s IPV experiences by analyzing 46 posts shared by 42 women on a public online forum. Five overarching themes were identified using conventional qualitative content analysis: being trapped in my roles, no power in the relationship, the struggles are real but I need to tolerate, I want to leave but have no help, and hope for the future. This study has important implications for future research, practice, and education.

Li, Carrie KW et al. "Chinese Women's Financial Independence and Their Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Experiences."

Violence against women, vol. 29, no. 5, 2023, pp. 949-963.


Abstract: China, as a traditional patriarchal society, provides an excellent context to examine whether and how increased financial independence of women may influence intimate partner violence. This study examines how financial independence influences Chinese women's victimization experiences of physical violence, psychological violence, controlling behavior, and sexual abuse. Data were collected from 600 married or divorced women aged between 20 and 60, who resided in a large metropolitan area in Southern China. Results indicated that while physical violence is reduced by women's financial independence, other forms of connective IPV against women are suggested as expressions of men's desire to keep financially independent women in place.


3. Child Abuse

Denne, Emily et al. "Myths and Misunderstandings About Child Sexual Abuse in Criminal Investigations."

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 38, issue 1-2, 2023, pp. 1893-1919.


Researchers have established that rape myths shape perceptions of victims and perpetrators in criminal cases. Researchers have devoted less attention to exploring the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) myths in court. While we know that jurors believe myths and misconceptions about the nature of CSA, no work has explored how these myths appear during the prosecution of CSA cases. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess how defense attorneys apply myths more specific to CSA in the questioning of children testifying about alleged CSA. The present study compliments and expands upon a previous study by St. George and colleagues (2021a), where authors examined the use of rape myths in the questioning of children making allegations of CSA. In the current study, we examined testimonies of 122 children testifying in criminal cases of alleged CSA in the United States. We qualitatively coded 6,384 lines of questioning for references to CSA-focused myths related to the disclosure process, witnesses and privacy issues, assumptions of harm, and the child’s positive relationship with the perpetrator. These myths were common, occurring in over 10% of defense attorneys’ lines of questioning. Disclosure issues were the most frequent, followed by witness and privacy issues, assumptions of harm, and the child’s positive relationship with their perpetrator. In many cases, attorneys employed different strategies across child’s age to highlight these myths. These findings compliment those of prior work suggesting that CSA myths, much like rape myths, are appearing with regularity. Defense attorneys are likely capitalizing on jurors’ misconceptions to undermine children’s believability.

McGill, Lucy, and McElvaney Rosaleen. "Adult and Adolescent Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse: A Comparative Analysis."

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 38, issue 1-2, 2023, pp. 1163-1186.



The recent attention focused on child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure pathways has highlighted complex psychological processes that influence disclosure both for children and adults. Some authors have suggested that such processes may differ between children and adults yet few studies have examined distinct samples within the same study. This paper addresses this gap by exploring adolescent (n = 20) and adult (n = 10) experiences of disclosure of childhood sexual abuse. Interviews were conducted with both samples, using the same interview schedule and a comparative analysis was conducted of the key themes identified from a grounded theory analysis. Those themes that were found to be common to both samples included pressure cooker effect, telling would make it worse, and self-blame. Themes that were found to be more prevalent in the adolescent sample included police/court involvement, concern for other children, being asked, and peer influence. It is suggested that such potential differences reflect the changing social context over the past few decades which is characterised by increased awareness of sexual abuse as a crime and the risks of recidivism of offenders.

Disability Rights 身心障礙權利



共融匯思 Inclusive Asia



《中華人民共和國精神衛生法》(以下簡稱《精神衛生法》) 自2013年5月1日到2023年5月1日已正式施行十年。作為民間視角下的《精神衛生法》案例分析報告,我們主要關注《精神衛生法》司法實踐之中的決策模式,探討在現有法律框架之下,精神障礙者的權利以及《精神衛生法》所規定的相關程式在司法實踐中的具體認定問題。並在此基礎上,初步討論這些規定、實踐是否符合聯合國 《殘疾人權利公約》的相關要求。需要指出的是,我們不主張在本報告中呈現的是與《精神衛生法》有關的司法實踐的完整、全面、量化的圖景,而是在關鍵問題上,以司法實踐為基礎,梳理在某些關鍵問題上法院對《精神衛生法》相關規則的解釋和適用,為心智障礙領域提供相關的法律資訊,為未來精神障礙者社群遇到類似案件提供相關的先例和訴訟策略參考;同時,能夠發現《精神衛生法》司法實踐中的問題,特別是和精神障礙者自主決策權利相關的問題,瞭解現實中的法律實踐和《殘疾人權利公約》要求的差距,為未來精神障礙者權利宣導工作提供相關指引。




Morris, Floyd. "Prospects for employment of persons with disabilities in the post-covid-19 era in developing countries."

Disability & Society, vol. 38, issue 2, 2023, pp. 267-286.



The global environment has been hit with a pandemic of cataclysmic proportion. The COVID19 has created havoc on all countries and has claimed the lives of over 3 million individuals and affected over 100 million persons at the time of writing this paper. Countries have been forced to implement measures to safeguard their population. Included in these measures is work from home strategies. The crisis, whilst catastrophic in nature; has created some opportunities for groups such as persons with disabilities through remote employment. The author examines through a case study, the prospects for employment of persons with disabilities using the concept of remote employment. The Business Process Outsourcing sector is the focus of study. The fundamental question to answer in the study is to what extent can the Business Process Outsourcing sector employ more persons with disabilities in the Post-COVID19 era? The article is completed with some recommendations.

Lourens, Heidi and Brian Watermeyer. "The invisible lockdown: reflections on disability during the time of the Coronavirus pandemic."

Disability & Society, vol. 38, issue 3, 2023, pp. 373-384.


In this autoethnography, BW and I explore the various ways in which my experiences of lockdown during the Coronavirus pandemic are not altogether different from my everyday experiences as a visually impaired person. Further, we make sense of my experience that, notwithstanding the social world’s expression of feelings about lockdown and social distancing, my own reactions to disability-imposed lockdown remain unrecognized, invalidated and unseen. Making sense of these experiences of invisibility is essential, since it is only when our experiences are truly contemplated by others that we can have the hope of being fully known.

Lam, Angus, et al. "Voices from parents on the sexuality of their child with intellectual disabilities: A socioemotional perspective in a Chinese context."

British Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol. 51, issue 1, 2023, pp. 13-23.




This qualitative study explored the attitudes and experiences of Hong Kong Chinese parents/carers relating to the sexual needs of their child with intellectual disabilities.


Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Hong Kong with seven parents/carers applying Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore their experiences of and attitudes towards the sexual needs of their adult child with intellectual disabilities.


Data revealed three salient variations in participants' attitudes towards the child's sexual needs: concern, reluctance and prohibition. Participants' anxiety about discussing sexuality was evident. Most participants further displayed a layer of feeling that combined ‘love’ and ‘grief’. Based on Goffman's dramaturgical perspective, participants exhibited front stage and back stage behaviours that are believed to be strongly influenced by stigmatisation and collectivist culture.


Various levels of intervention to reduce stigma are identified and discussed. This study also highlighted the role of caring professionals in generating awareness of the cultural impact on the family and the need to carefully address the subtle feelings experienced by family members with intellectual disabilities.

Rawlings, Gregg H and Nigel Beail. "Long-COVID in people with intellectual disabilities: A call for research of a neglected area."

British Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol. 51, issue 1, 2023, pp. 91-98.




Long-COVID (also known as post-coronavirus-19 syndrome) is a term used to describe symptoms that people experience following their recovery from the COVID-19 virus. The severity of long-COVID is well recognised, with healthcare providers commissioning services to diagnose and treat those affected, as well as funded research into the condition.


We performed a systematic search for relevant articles but were unable to find any research on long-COVID in people with intellectual disabilities. Due to the lack of data, we have only been able to make extrapolations from what is known about the condition within the general population.


We provide an overview of long-COVID and its potential relevance to people with an intellectual disability. We have focused specifically on symptoms or signs, prevalence, risk factors and treatments of the condition in this group, highlighting areas for clinical practice and future research from a psychosocial perspective. We raise serious questions about our current understanding and the availability of the evidence-based to inform treatments tailored towards this population.


This is the first report that we are aware of on the topic of long-COVID in people with an intellectual disability. The lack of research is preventing us from gaining a greater understanding of how the condition impacts people with an intellectual disability.

LGBT+ Rights 性小眾權利


Zhang, Boyang et al. "Searching for the Rainbow Connection: Regional Development and LGBT Communities in China. " 

Journal of Contemporary China, vol. 32, no. 140, 2023, pp. 296-318.


China is estimated to have 70 million lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and in recent decades, the LGBT movement has seen rapid growth. However, because of the unavailability of data, a comprehensive understanding of the degree of regional development of the Chinese LGBT movement has been unavailable. By analyzing keyword search volumes for LGBT-related terms on Baidu (the largest internet search engine in China) from 2009 through 2015, we have produced the first representative and longitudinal portrait of LGBT orientation across the country. Our data revealed that the level of LGBT orientation search index in a province is significantly correlated with modernization and cultural capital stock factors, such as GDP per capita, resident income level, openness to foreign culture, and local cultural infrastructure.

Cui, Le. "Heteronormative classrooms under surveillance: Gay academics’ concerns about addressing queer issues in China." 

Journal of LGBT Youth, vol. 20, no. 1, 2023, pp. 129-142.


Gay academics in China are governed by both the repressive political climate and heteronormative culture on campus. This intersectional experience is still underexplored in the literature on queer teachers. Drawing on 40 gay academics’ interview narratives, this article focuses on their concerns about addressing queer issues in the classroom in Chinese universities. Heteronormativity is adopted as a theoretical concept to unpack the constitution of sexual culture on Chinese campuses. It is shown that heteronormativity operates in interpersonal interactions and institutional practices in universities. Given China’s unique political context, this research highlights the impact of repressive politics on the perpetuation of heteronormativity. A range of classroom surveillance and censorship techniques operated by the authorities are revealed as constraining gay academics from addressing queer issues in class. It is argued that university classrooms in China are heteronormative spaces where queerness is silenced by the institutions and Party-state.

Huang, Shuzhen. "Reclaiming Family, Reimaging Queer Relationality."

Journal of Homosexuality, vol. 70, no. 1, 2023, pp. 17-34.



Family is an important issue in imagining queer modes of existence. In this essay, I argue for a queer relationality that is structured around biogenetic family, a site that is often marginalized and negated in dominant Euro-American queer discourse. Informed by queer of color critique and postcolonial feminism, this essay affirms the relational framework in understanding the everyday struggles of queer subjects. Situated in the context of Chinese society, I investigate a queer relationality that centers ambivalence and inbetweenness as queer modes of positioning, challenging the teleological narrative of queerness that is characterized by oppositionality, singularity, and anti-relationality.

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