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Literature Database (Nov 2022-Jan 2023)


Update and compilation of recent academic research and reports in the area of equality rights

Gender-based Violence 性別暴力

Gender-based Violence 性別暴力

1. Sexual Assault 性侵犯


Luan, Hui, Guowei Wan, Xijuan Sun, Jialu Niu. “A Scoping Review of Programs to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Mainland China”

Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 2022.



Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a worldwide public health concern. With the widespread dissemination of prevention approaches to end CSA, numerous CSA prevention programs exist in developed countries, but there is little evidence on how these programs are performing in Mainland China. The aim of this study was to review the existing research focusing on CSA prevention programs in Mainland China. Studies of CSA prevention programs were identified by conducting a comprehensive search of major academic databases for Chinese and English research. Articles were retained if they were original empirical studies that conducted programs to prevent CSA in Mainland China and measured related outcomes. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. A child-targeted, universally focused, and school-based educational program was the most common (n = 7), followed by specifically focused programs that covered migrant and left-behind children using group-based intervention strategies (n = 2) and ordinary parents with self-learning strategies (n = 2); one study delivered agency-based face-to-face education to parents with disabled children. However, the shortcomings in research design limited its replication to the broader population. CSA prevention program research in Mainland China is in an early stage due to the limited target populations, lack of large-scale government-led initiatives, and low involvement of multicomponent collaboration. We provide suggestions for conducting future research involving more inclusive programs for other populations, comprehensive programs with multiple targets and stakeholders, large-scale evidence-based research, culturally tailored and contextual adaptation programs.


2. Sexual Harassment 性騷擾

Liu, Hong Yu. ““When Nobody Listens, Go Online”: The “807” Labor Movement Against Workplace Sexism in China's Tech Industry”

Gender, Work & Organization, Vol. 30, Issue 1, 2022, pp. 312-328.



An online petition, signed by more than six thousand Chinese tech workers in August 2021, is the latest example of an online labor movement in the authoritarian context of China. Combining interviews and publicly available information, this article provides a descriptive account of an activist movement, explains workers' demands, and discusses the characteristics of online labor activism. It explores how Chinese tech workers fight collectively against a gender-discriminatory workplace culture as they strive to bring justice to a sexual crime victim without affiliating themselves with official political organizations. The research findings suggest that while rising feminist consciousness has the potential to motivate collective action by workers, such motivation is highly dependent upon individual experiences at work and tends to be event-based and of limited continuity. It argues that rising awareness of women's rights provides a new kind of legitimacy to labor activism, and a new way to express labor concerns in a context of increased criminalization of labor organizational activities in China today.

Qiu, Geping, Honging Cheng. “Gender and Power in the Ivory Tower: Sexual Harassment in Graduate Supervision in China”

Journal of Gender Studies, 2022.



This article examines how female graduate students in China would perceive their experiences as survivors of sexual harassment by their faculty supervisors. Based on our narrative interviews at Chinese universities, this study has shown that 1) sexual harassment is the supervisor’s expression of gender-based power in Chinese academia; 2) instead of blatant coercion, harassers would use their power strategically to influence and manipulate the student’s ‘consent’ – that is, to lead the victim into deceived or illusory perceptions in order to sexually harass her; 3) for those participants who refused or resisted in particular, their academic progress, careers, health, relationships, and trust to society were all negatively affected; 4) a major cause of sexual harassment in the university setting was that female scholars and students were always treated in a sexual role rather than an academic role; and 5) institutional sexual harassment policies that deploy moral norms as a tool of attributing responsibility and blame can be seen as maintaining the very sexual hierarchies in the university settings.


3. Domestic/Intimate Partner Violence 家庭/親密伴侶暴力


Sun, Shufang et al. “Domestic Violence Victimization Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China During the COVID-19 Lockdown”

Journal of interpersonal violence, Vol. 37, Issue 23-24, 2022, pp. NP22135-NP22150.



Many countries worldwide have implemented dedicated measures, such as shelter at home, to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus. However, those mitigation measures may have major implications for individuals living with someone abusive or controlling. Domestic violence (DV) may be one of the unintended consequences of public health measures due to increased various stressors and reduced access to support and services. There has been a lack of empirical research on DV victimization among gender and sexual minorities, a population vulnerable to interpersonal violence and its associated adverse health outcomes. This study investigates the prevalence of DV victimization among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jiangsu Province, China, during the COVID-19 lockdown and its correlates with COVID-19–related psychosocial and health stressors. A total of 413 MSM were recruited via snowball sampling, venue-based, and internet-based sampling from four cities in Jiangsu Province. After providing informed consent, all participants completed study questionnaires, followed by HIV testing. Over a quarter of the participants (27.4%) reported DV victimization during the COVID-19 lockdown, including experience of verbal, physical, or sexual abuse. After adjusting sociodemographic factors, DV victimization was associated with various adverse experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown, including increased stress or anxiety level, increased alcohol use, and housing instability. Study findings underscore the prevalence of DV victimization among MSM during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The results can inform public health efforts to raise awareness and address DV victimization among MSM in the low- and middle-income country context during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adequate health and social services and economic resources are also critical to address the needs of MSM experiencing DV victimization.







4. Image-based Sexual Violence 影像性暴力

Crofts, Thomas. “Combatting Intimate Image Abuse in Hong Kong”

Hong Kong Law Journal, Vol. 52, Issue 2, 2022, pp. 405–430.



For some time, it has been recognised that intimate image abuse can cause significant harm to victims and that the existing criminal offences in Hong Kong were neither adequate nor appropriate to address such behaviour. To remedy this situation, four new offences were added to the Crimes Ordinance in October 2021. These offences cover voyeurism, unlawful recording of intimate images, publication of images unlawfully obtained and non-consensual publication of intimate images. This article explores the background to the new offences in Hong Kong, before critically and comparatively examining the elements of the new offences. In doing so, it contributes to the ongoing debate both in Hong Kong and overseas about how the criminal law can most appropriately respond to the harms caused by intimate image abuse.

Trafficking in Women and Girls 婦女和女童的人口販運








LGBT+ Rights 性小眾權利


Chan, Randolph C.H., Janice Sin Yu Leung. “Monosexism as an Additional Dimension of Minority Stress Affecting Mental Health among Bisexual and Pansexual Individuals in Hong Kong: The Role of Gender and Sexual Identity Integration”

The Journal of Sex Research, 2022.



Monosexism has been increasingly recognized as a minority stressor uniquely experienced by plurisexual individuals. The present study investigated the effects of monosexist discrimination on mental health and examined the moderating role of gender and sexual identity integration (i.e., negation, authenticity, and disclosure). In a sample of 314 bisexual and pansexual individuals in Hong Kong (73.9% women and 26.1% men), the results showed that monosexist discrimination was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, above and beyond heterosexist discrimination. The association between monosexist discrimination and depression symptoms was stronger among bisexual and pansexual men than women, despite there being no gender differences in vulnerability to monosexist discrimination. Moreover, sexual identity negation, authenticity, and disclosure moderated the associations of monosexist discrimination with depression and anxiety symptoms, such that the associations were not significant among those with more positive integration of sexual identity (i.e., lower levels of sexual identity negation as well as higher levels of sexual identity authenticity and disclosure). This study provides insight into the deleterious impact of monosexism and the protective role of sexual identity integration. Implications for plurisexual-affirming psychological intervention, public policy, and community practice are discussed.

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