Literature Database (May-July 2022)
Update and compilation of recent academic research and reports in the area of equality rights
Gender-based Violence 性別暴力
1. Sexual Assault 性侵犯
Chen, Hongliang, et al. “Empowering Chinese College Students to Prevent Sexual Assault in Post-MeToo Era: An Empirical Study of the Bystander Intervention Approach.”
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 37, no. 1–2, Jan. 2022, pp. NP449–NP472.
MeToo movement unveiled the high prevalence of sexual assault in Chinese colleges. To create a safer environment, many Chinese universities require students to engage in bystander intervention sessions, which encourages students to assess, identify, and interrupt the harmful situation. Drawing upon health belief model and theory of planned behavior, this study tests the effects of bystander intervention programs, exposure to news reports on MeToo movement, and institutional responses to sexual violence events on bystander intervention intention and behaviors. The results of an online survey (N = 814) indicated that bystander intervention programs were effective in changing attendees’ perceived benefits, subjective norms, and bystander self-efficacy, which, in turn, led to increased bystander intervention intention and actual behaviors. Moreover, exposure to MeToo movement reports and institutional responses to sexual assault events were significant predictors of bystander intervention intention and behaviors via the mediation of perceived benefits, perceived costs, and subjective norms. The results provide valuable implications for developing effective bystander intervention programs in Chinese college communities.
Naresh, Ekasmayi E., et al. “Why I Said #MeToo: An Exploration of the Purpose of Disclosure Among Indian Women.” Indian Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, Feb 2022, pp. 98–112.
The surge of sexual abuse disclosures by women during the #MeToo movement raised awareness about an important social issue that has garnered much attention. However, apart from the changes the movement initiated, the issue of why women chose to disclose in the context of the movement has not been extensively examined. Why women disclose such a sensitive topic in the public domain, often via social media, within the Indian cultural context, where matters such as sexual abuse are considered taboo, warrants further examination. This article explores the reasons for disclosure among Indian women participating in the #MeToo movement, through qualitative research, using the interpretative phenomenological approach. The emergent themes include reactions to the injustice, expectations of validation and closure, addressing stigma, initiation of dialogue and social change, as well as expression of solidarity, as the purpose for which disclosures were undertaken.
Singh, Vijay P. “Judicial Approaches to the Criminalisation of Marital Rape.”
Indian Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, Feb. 2022, pp. 10–32.
In India, as in different traditional cultures, women have been and still are treated in a number of inhumane ways. They are controlled, prone to assault and abuse and risk rape not only outside but within their own homes. Moreover, marital rape is not considered a crime in India. The article attempts to analyse Indian rape laws and to show that exemption for marital rape does not align with the fundamental principles of justice and equality, which is the basic feature of the Indian Constitution. The article argues that the exemption clause should be repealed, and marital rape be criminalised. The article further discusses the approach of the Indian judiciary towards the issue of criminalisation of marital rape.
Xue, Jia, et al. “Chinese University Students’ Attitudes Toward Rape Myth Acceptance: The Role of Gender, Sexual Stereotypes, and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs.”
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 37, no. 5-6, 2022, pp. 2467–2486.
The present study constructs and tests models that examine the relations between variables of “gender,” “sex role stereotyping,” and “adversarial sexual beliefs” on rape myth acceptance. The sample is 975 Chinese university students from seven universities in China. Measures include Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA), Sex Role Stereotyping (SRS) Scale, and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs (ASB). We use structural equation modeling to investigate whether gender directly affects the acceptance of rape myth, or that these influences are mediated by SRS and ASB, after controlling for several demographic characteristics. Results suggest that SRS and ASB have a direct effect on rape myth acceptance. Gender has no direct effect on rape myth acceptance in three out of the four models, but it significantly (β = −.02, p < .05) predicts the acceptance of rape–violence myth. We also discuss the implications and limitations of the study.
2. Sexual Harassment 性騷擾
Vijayalakshmi, Akshaya, et al. “Domestic workers and sexual harassment in India: Examining preferred response strategies.”
World Development, vol. 155, July 2022, p. 105875.
The purpose of this research is to understand how women working as domestic workers, who are part of the informal sector, are likely to respond to sexual harassment incidents. Unlike the organized sector, women in informal and nontraditional workspaces often do not have access to formal organizational mechanisms for lodging complaints, thus making it important to understand their response strategies. To understand their likely response to sexual harassment in the informal sector, we conducted a detailed survey of 387 domestic workers in India where we presented each respondent with eleven possible sexual harassment scenarios and nine possible responses to each such scenario. We find that (a) women are most likely to employ strategies that are self-focused and with minimal support from friends/family. (b) Women complain to authorities/family only when they can furnish evidence of harassment. (c) Women are not likely to complain to their female supervisor under any circumstances. And (d) unsurprisingly, poorer, and migrant women are likely to be more silent than women who are relatively better-off about harassment. The results, in brief, show a distrust of the current systems. By examining this informal and unorganized workspace, we offer a stronger theoretical understanding of employee responses to sexual harassment and provide practical suggestions.
Wang, Xiying, et al. “Perception of Gender Equality Matters: Targets’ Responses to Workplace Sexual Harassment in Chinese Metropolises.”
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 37, no. 13-14, 2022, pp. NP11933–NP11963.
Workplace sexual harassment (WSH) has been recognized in the literature as a serious problem for the past 40 years. Since 2017, the global #MeToo movement has fostered local awareness of WSH and inspired researchers in China to pay increasing attention. Guided by the gender empowerment theory, this study investigated the relationships between women’s responses as targets of WSH (e.g., choosing avoidance or confrontation) and both their perceptions of gender equality and their knowledge of the relevant national laws. We used data from a recent large-scale online survey conducted on the topic of sexual harassment among Chinese women in four metropolitan cities in 2018 and selected 862 women who had experienced WSH during the previous 12 months as the study sample. The results revealed that 545 of the respondents chose to show resistance when faced with WSH, while 287 identified their boss as their harasser. In addition, respondents’ perceptions of gender equality and their knowledge of national laws on anti-domestic violence were shown to have positive effects on their responses as targets of WSH. Moreover, monthly income, household registration, and type of WSH were found to be associated with targets’ responses in a statistically significant way, whereas their marital status, educational background, and age were not. Furthermore, the study found that the boss as harasser weakened the relationship between women’s perception of gender equality and their active response to WSH incidents. With this study, we advance our understanding of the important role that perceptions of gender equality play in women’s responses as targets of WSH, and we discuss implications for prevention and intervention efforts that encourage targets to actively respond. We advocate promoting education on gender equality, fostering awareness of the laws and regulations relevant to WSH, and cultivating an organizational culture and environment that is hostile toward WSH.
是項研究獲平等機會委員會「2020/21 年度平等機會研究項目資助計劃」的撥款資助，在2021年進行，以43項的檢視清單審視及比較各大專院校的反性騷擾書面政策，包括八間由大學教育資助委員會撥款資助院校（簡稱八大）以及三十三間自資院校。八大的檢視清單回應率為100%（8間院校全部回覆），自資院校的檢視清單回應率為75.8%（33間中有25間完成檢視清單）。 是項研究的重點是探討各院校的反性騷擾書面政策，以院校是否有將措施提升至專門和正式的反性騷擾書面政策為依歸。研究以檢視清單作為評分準則，以比較各校現存政策的完善程度。檢視清單分為四部分：（1）政策聲明；（2）政策內容；（3）處理投訴程序；以及（4）政策施行。 評核方面，以 ✓顯示達標、乄顯示部份達標，以及✗顯示不達標。
3. Domestic/Intimate Partner Violence 家庭/親密伴侶暴力
Chang, Xuening, et al. “The Characteristics of Husbands and Violence against Women in Wuhan, China: A Cross-sectional Study.”
BMC Women's Health, vol. 22, no. 1, 2022, p. 73.
Objective: To explore the prevalence and correlation between husbands and lifetime domestic violence (DV) among women in Wuhan, China.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community health center in Wuhan from June 2015 to December 2015. A total of 1015 women who came to the center for gynecological examination were selected through a random sampling. They were assessed using the WHO Violence Against Women Instrument to evaluate the prevalence of DV. The chi-square test, the Wilcoxon rank test, and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the possible risk or protective factors for DV.
Results: The lifetime prevalence of DV was 29.36% (298/1015). The risk factors included heavy physical labor (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.63–7.77), long-term drinking (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.19–2.14), overweight or obesity (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01–1.88) and long-term smoking (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.04). Higher education was a protective factor (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66–0.96).
Conclusion: Women whose husbands had lower education, performed heavy physical labor, were long-term alcohol consumers, had overweight or obesity, and were long-term smokers were vulnerable to lifetime DV.
Hayes, Brittany E., et al. “Chinese Police Cadets’ Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence: A Pretest/Posttest Design.” Crime & Delinquency, vol. 68, no. 2, 2022, pp. 232–252.
Since the Domestic Violence (DV) Law was passed in China in 2015, knowledge of this mandate has been relatively unexplored. Data from 401 police cadets attending Zhejiang Police College in Hangzhou, China, are analyzed. A pretest/posttest design was used to assess changes in attitudes toward DV after a 30-minute lecture on DV. The influence of gender, whether the cadet views DV as a priority for law enforcement, and knowledge of services are examined. Findings demonstrate the utility of the training while recognizing cadets with prior knowledge of DV may have resisted the training. Given entrance into law enforcement is more likely for individuals who attend a police college in China, implications include incorporating a DV course at police colleges.
Hu, Ran, et al. “Migrant Women’s Help-Seeking Decisions and Use of Support Resources for Intimate Partner Violence in China.”
Violence Against Women, vol. 28, no. 1, Jan 2022, pp. 169–193.
In China, women who domestically relocate from rural or less developed regions to major cities are at a higher risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) than their non-migrant counterparts. Few studies have focused on Chinese domestic migrant women’s help-seeking for IPV and their use of different sources of support. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence migrant women’s help-seeking decisions. In addition, we also examined factors that contribute to migrant women’s use of diverse sources of support for IPV. A sample of 280 migrant women victimized by IPV in the past year at the time of the survey was drawn from a larger cross-sectional study conducted in four major urban cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. Using a multinomial logistic regression model and a zero-inflated Poisson model, we found that factors influencing migrant women’s help-seeking decisions and their use of diverse sources of support included socioeconomic factors, IPV type, relationship-related factors, knowledge of China’s first anti-Domestic Violence Law, and perception of the effectiveness of current policies. We discuss implications for future research and interventions.
Lin, Kai, et al. “Female Same-Sex Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence in China.”
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 37, no. 9-10, 2022, pp. NP6881-P6902.
Although there exists a growing body of research on female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) as well as bidirectional intimate partner violence (BIPV) among lesbian women, much of this literature focuses on the IPV experience of women living in Western societies such as the United States. The current study represents the very first to explore BIPV among lesbian women in China. In this study, we analyze a survey sample of 225 self-identified lesbian women in China to examine FSSBIPV patterns, pattern- specific rates, and risk factors of FSSBIPV. Using the Latent Class Analysis technique, we discover three main patterns of partner abuse, including bidirectional psychological violence (60%), bidirectional violence multiple types with physical abuse (79.1%), and minimal violence (20.9%). Logistic regressions show that there is no significant demographic, socioeconomic, or attitudinal difference between the bidirectional psychological violence group and the minimal violence group while being younger, cohabitating, and holding pro-IPV attitudes significantly predicted higher odds of experiencing multiple types of bidirectional violence. Contributions to the literature, as well as policy implications, are also discussed.
Sun, Ivan Y., et al. “Officer and Organizational Correlates With Police Interventions in Domestic Violence in China.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 37, no. 11-12, 2022, pp. NP8325–NP8349.
Although domestic violence has long been identified as a serious social problem in China, little is known about police officers’ attitudinal and behavioral tendencies toward such incidents. Drawing upon survey data collected from police officers in two Chinese provinces, this study assesses whether officer and organizational factors are correlated to police inaction and intervention in resolving family violence. More than a quarter of Chinese police officers often and sometime did not take any action when responding to domestic violence. Chinese officers favored most the least punitive approaches of mediation and separation, with the most punitive actions, written warning and criminal sanction as the least preferred interventions. We found that Chinese officers with low levels of knowledge about the domestic violence law, higher degrees of tolerance of violence and less supportive attitudes toward an active police role in handling domestic violence are less willing to take any action against the offenders. Chinese police officers who perceived stronger supervisory support and expressed better knowledge about China’s new domestic violence law are more likely to intervene in domestic violence, whereas police officers who expressed greater degrees of tolerance of violence and believed in gender equality in society are less inclined to intervene. Policy makers and police administrators ought to pay greater attention to frontline supervisors’ attitudes and behavior toward proper responses to family violence. If active intervention is preferred, then measures and programs should be put into place to improve police officers’ legal knowledge and communication and problem-solving skills pertaining to conflict resolution.
4. Image-based Sexual Violence 影像性暴力
陳效能（2022）。《偷拍 : 偷走了甚麼？：以性文化及性別角度為切入點的研究報告》。
明愛朗天計劃 – 共同對抗性侵犯 及 嶺南大學社會學及社會政策系
5. Others 其他
Nurtjahyo, Lidwina I., & Wicaksono, Mochammad A. (Eds.). (2022) Gender-based Violence in South-East Asia: Policy in Practice.
This book presents new research on gender-based violence in Southeast Asia, bringing together varied scholarly work in law, policy, and practice. It enables a greater understanding of violence against women as an international concern, highlighting particular issues that arise in the region. Against a background of international obligations to ensure women's rights through laws and policies that are geared at ending violence against women and girls, this research documents the state failures, individual shame and fear, and societal culture that collectively affects the reporting, investigation, prosecution of perpetrators, and protection of victims. The research explores differing legal mechanisms both internationally, and within nation states, relating to cases of physical and sexual violence. It recognizes the need for functioning mechanisms to ensure women can report their cases safely and be provided with protective and therapeutic services in a way that is systematic, effective, and measurable. Laws and court decisions are analyzed, crisis and safety centers are examined, and in-depth interviews are conducted with actors and NGOs with relevant roles and functions in the mechanism of cases of violence against women. The result is a comprehensive assessment of the incalculable harm it does within Southeast Asian society, and the obstacles it presents for law enforcement. The chapters uncover mechanisms with unique characteristics across Southeast Asia, providing a nuanced understanding of the cultural and social backgrounds, as well as the religious structures, that can both help and hinder suitable frameworks. It is relevant to scholars, policymakers, and practitioners in law, criminology, and gender sociology.
Li, Ke (2022). Marriage Unbound: State Law, Power, and Inequality in Contemporary China.
Stanford: Stanford University Press.
China after Mao has undergone vast transformations, including massive rural-to-urban migration, rising divorce rates, and the steady expansion of the country's legal system. Today, divorce may appear a private concern, when in fact it is a profoundly political matter—especially in a national context where marriage was and has continued to be a key vehicle for nation-state building. Marriage Unbound focuses on the politics of divorce cases in contemporary China, following a group of women seeking judicial remedies for conjugal grievances and disputes.
Drawing on extensive archival and ethnographic data, paired with unprecedented access to rural Chinese courtrooms, Ke Li presents not only a stirring portrayal of how these women navigate divorce litigation, but also a uniquely in-depth account of the modern Chinese legal system. With sensitive and fluid prose, Li reveals the struggles between the powerful and the powerless at the front lines of dispute management; the complex interplay between culture and the state; and insidious statecraft that far too often sacrifices women's rights and interests. Ultimately, this book shows how women's legal mobilization and rights contention can forge new ground for our understanding of law, politics, and inequality in an authoritarian regime.
Michelson, Ethan (2022). Decoupling: Gender Injustice in China's Divorce Courts.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Michelson's analysis of almost 150,000 divorce trials reveals routine and egregious violations of China's own laws upholding the freedom of divorce, gender equality, and the protection of women's physical security. Using 'big data' computational techniques to scrutinize cases covering 2009–2016 from all 252 basic-level courts in two Chinese provinces, Henan and Zhejiang, Michelson reveals that women have borne the brunt of a dramatic intensification since the mid-2000s of a decades-long practice of denying divorce requests. This book takes the reader upstream to the institutional sources of China's clampdown on divorce and downstream to its devastating and highly gendered human toll, showing how judges in an overburdened court system clear their oppressive dockets at the expense of women's lawful rights and interests. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in Chinese courts, judicial decision-making, family law, gender violence, and the limits and possibilities of the globalization of law. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Chan, Leon V., et al. “No-fault Divorce: The Right Direction Towards Therapeutic Justice”
Hong Kong Law Journal, vol. 52, 2022, pp. 181–206.
In May 2021, Singapore reopened the discussion to introduce no-fault divorce into its divorce laws and sought the public’s opinion on its consultation paper. This article posits that no-fault divorce is not against the best interests of society and in the best interests of the family. This is because no-fault divorce can benefit parties (especially the children) and does not erode the sanctity of marriage. An empirical study of divorce in Hong Kong shows that there is no correlation between no-fault divorce and the increase in divorces. In a similar vein and in line with therapeutic justice, the authors also propose interdisciplinary measures to better support marriages and children to complement the introduction of no-fault divorce in Singapore.
Gender Discrimination 性/別歧視
Barrow, Amy. “Hong Kong’s Sex Discrimination Ordinance at Twenty-Five: Achievements, Legislative Change and Continuing Challenges.”
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, vol. 22, no. 2, 2022, pp. 107–124.
This article critiques Hong Kong’s Sex Discrimination Ordinance (SDO) as it turns 25, considering its achievements and impact, whilst highlighting continuing challenges for its operation. Although the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC), the statutory body responsible for investigating and conciliating discrimination complaints, has promoted the ordinance and disseminated evidence-based research on sex discrimination, sexual harassment and pregnancy discrimination, the limited number of litigated cases has inhibited the educative impact of how discriminatory practices are perpetrated across a range of settings including in employment and the provision of goods and services. Politically contentious exemptions persist, and recent law reform does not go far enough in addressing the limitations of the SDO. Drawing on case law and qualitative research interviews with members of the EOC, scholars and non-governmental organisations, this paper questions whether Hong Kong’s SDO is coming of age. The article concludes that despite it 25-year history, there is much works that remains to be done to enhance societal understandings of gender equality.
Yan, Elsie, et al. “Abuse and Discrimination Experienced by Older Women in the Era of COVID-19: A Two-Wave Representative Community Survey in Hong Kong.”
Violence Against Women, vol. 28, no. 8, 2022, pp. 1750–1772.
Although there is a growing volume of research on violence against women, violence against older women has received little attention to date. Little is known about the experience of elder abuse, discrimination, loneliness, and health among older women, in particular in the era of COVID-19 when our lives have been changed drastically. Using two waves of survey data (N = 1,498), this study compared the estimates of elder abuse and age discrimination before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, examined their associations with physical and mental health, and explored the mediating effects of loneliness on the associations in two independent samples of older women in Hong Kong. Reductions in some forms of abuse and discrimination against older women during the pandemic were observed. Findings from regression analyses show that elder abuse and age discrimination were associated with poorer health, and these associations were mediated by loneliness.
Sex Work 性工作
He, Guojun, et al. “Guns and roses: Police complicity in organized prostitution.”
Journal of Public Economics, vol. 207, March 2022, p. 104599.
Police complicity in organized crime is not uncommon, yet it is extremely difficult to examine empirically. Using unique sex transaction data from China, we show that police can be complicit in organized prostitution. Specifically, we document that sauna houses and massage parlors with greater neighborhood police density are likely to be “protected” by police and thus can host higher-risk, higher-penalty sex business. The complicity effect is particularly salient during periods of local prostitution crackdowns, implying selective enforcement. Changes in local leadership and visits of the central government’s discipline teams can attenuate the complicity effect.
Trafficking in Women and Girls 婦女和女童的人口販賣
Liang, Xiaochen. “Marriage Trafficking: Demand, Exploitation, and Conducive Contexts—A Study in China–Vietnam Border Areas.”
Violence Against Women, June 2022.
This study contributes to the marriage trafficking literature by highlighting its demand, unique forms of exploitation, and conducive context through a qualitative study in China–Vietnam border areas. The findings indicate: (a) local demand for marriage constitutes a premise for the emergence and development of a marriage trafficking market, (b) three forms of exploitation distinguish marriage trafficking from other trafficking forms; (c) the local contexts conducive to the formation and facilitation of marriage trafficking also impede trafficked women's agency. In-depth interviews were conducted with marriage trafficked women who have not exited the trafficking situations, and with key local social network actors in the trafficking areas.
Xiong, Wanru. “Does the Shortage of Marriageable Women Induce the Trafficking of Women for Forced Marriage? Evidence From China.”
Violence Against Women, vol. 28, no. 6-7, May 2022, pp. 1441–1463.
This article examines whether a shortage of marriageable women induces trafficking of women for forced marriage in China as commonly expected. I assemble a data set of 1,215 transactions of women for forced marriage from 2010–2018 using court documents. My analysis suggests that the trafficking of women is not a direct consequence of the local shortage of marriageable women. The fundamental causes are entrenched patriarchal values as indicated by a high local sex ratio at birth, sex-specific internal migration, and the marriage squeeze endured by socially marginalized men in the context of a shortage of women in the population.
Children’s Rights 兒童權利
Chen, Xiaojin, et al. “Parental Migration and Risk of Sexual Assault against Children in Rural China.”
Crime & Delinquency, vol. 68 no. 4, 2022, pp. 613–643.
This study investigates the difference in rates of sexual assault between left-behind children and those living with both parents in rural China and attempts to identify potential social mechanisms explaining this variation. Using data from a probability sample of middle school students in Guizhou Province, China, our study reveals that parental migration, particularly maternal and both-parent migration, significantly increases children’s risk of sexual victimization. This relationship is mediated by three intervening pathways: weakened caretaker monitoring and supervision, children’s increased engagement in risky lifestyles, and elevated exposure to general victimization. These findings highlight the urgency to develop prevention and treatment programs based on a holistic understanding of protective and risk factors for sexual abuse against left-behind children in rural China.
Yu, Hui (2022). Migration and Educational Policymaking in China: A Critical Engagement with Policy Sociology and Bourdieu.
By concentrating on the topic of school enrolment policy for rural-to-urban migrant children in China, this book analyses the unequal power relations and structural inequalities that can appear in the context of education. The author complements current knowledge by applying theoretical resources of policy sociology, in particular the thinking of Pierre Bourdieu, into analysis of educational policymaking in the Chinese context. He takes a policy trajectory approach to trace the (unequal) power relations and structural inequalities invested and realised in the school enrolment policy. Rooted in rich qualitative data from five metropolises, he examines both external influences of politics, economy and public policy on educational policy agenda setting and discursive practices within the educational policy cycle, inherent in the post-2013 restrictive school enrolment policy. Structural constraints and agency in the local context are also explored, indicating that the intersectional effects of political, economic, and civic logic can result in differentiated modes of policy enactment. The study will be of interest to scholars, students, policymakers and practitioners in helping address policymaking and social justice in education for migrants and other marginalised groups.
Fan, Suiqiong, et al. “Child Marriage in Mainland China.”
Studies in Family Planning, vol. 53, no. 1, 2022, pp. 23–42.
Child marriage, defined as marriage before 18 years of age, has harmful consequences for health and development and is an indicator of gender inequality. We used publicly available data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses to estimate the national and provincial-level prevalence of child marriage across mainland China. Between 2000 and 2010, the prevalence of child marriage rose from 2.41 percent to 2.85 percent among women and from 0.54 percent to 0.77 percent among men. The 2010 estimates are equivalent to roughly 1.8 million women and 0.5 million men. Child marriage was more common in western provinces among both girls and boys. Provincial prevalence estimates ranged from 0.44 percent in Beijing to 12.94 percent in Qinghai among girls. Among boys, esti- mates ranged from 0.13 percent in Beijing to 5.03 percent in Tibet. The gender gap widened across much of the country between censuses. Our results indicate that child marriage continues across mainland China despite laws that ostensibly prohibit the practice. They also draw attention to the global nature of child marriage as a threat to gender equality.
Zhang, Huiping, et al. “The Role of Social Cohesion in Preventing Child Abuse Among Rural Chinese Left-Behind Children.”
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 37, no. 7–8, Apr 2022, pp. NP4510–NP4526.
Child abuse is a significant public health issue that can affect children’s physical and mental health. However, few studies have examined rural Chinese left-behind children. The role of social cohesion of rural Chinese communities in the prevention of child abuse remains understudied. The present study aims to investigate certain factors that could reduce child abuse problems, placing a special focus on the protective role of social cohesion, especially for left-behind rural children. Data were collected from a sample of 1,049 school-aged rural children from the largest middle school in China’s Henan Province. It was found that social cohesion directly affected physical abuse and emotional abuse; furthermore, social cohesion was more significantly associated with emotional abuse, whereas sexual abuse was a more significant issue for left-behind children than for those living with their parents. However, the moderating effect of the left-behind status on the association between social cohesion and physical abuse was not significant. Our findings suggest that social cohesion is an important factor for preventing emotional and sexual abuse. Thus, it is necessary to enhance social cohesion in rural Chinese communities with left-behind children to reduce their risk of experiencing child abuse.
LGBT+ Rights 性小眾權利
Miedema, Stephanie Spaid, et al. “An Intersectional Burden: Gender and Sexual Stigma against Toms in Thailand.” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 292, 2022, p. 114591.
Sexual stigma has deleterious effects on the health and wellbeing of sexual minority women. In low- and middle-income countries, theories and research on stigma against sexual minority women largely focus on sexuality-related stigma processes, such as internalized homophobia or perceived or enacted stigma due to sexual identity, attraction or practice. Yet, there is considerable gender diversity among sexual minority women. Further, sexuality and gender identity may intersect with broader gender inequalities to influence the experience of stigma among some groups. In this study, we conducted 21 qualitative life-history interviews with self-identified toms in Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, to evaluate whether and how gender identity, independent of and together with same-sex sexuality, influences experiences of stigma among gender non-conforming sexual minority women. We find that the pervasive experiences of stigma against toms derive as much from their assumed masculinity in Thai society, as from their same-sex sexuality. Notably, coercive feminization (attempts by others to orient toms toward sexual and gendered expectations of Thai femininity) and boundary policing (expressed hostility toward tom gender performance and sexual intimacy with feminine Thai women) were manifestations of concurrent gender non-conformity and sexual stigma, shaped in turn by the unique location of toms within the Thai gender/sex system. We propose that research and theories on stigma and health among sexual minorities systematically integrate a gender perspective, to elucidate the effects of gender identity and location within the gender structure on sexual minority experiences of stigma.
Disability Rights 身心障礙權利
Chen, Bo (2022). Mental Health Law in China: A Socio-legal Analysis.
This book provides an important critique of mental health law and practice in China, with a focus on involuntary detention and treatment. The work explores China’s mental health law reform regarding treatment decision-making in the new era of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It adopts a socio-legal approach, not only by undertaking a comprehensive desk-based analysis of the reforms introduced by China’s Mental Health Law (MHL) but also examining its implementation based on evidence from practice. The book seeks to investigate whether China’s first national MHL takes a step closer to the requirements of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on mental health treatment decision-making, and, if not, why not?
Fu, Wangqian (2022). Inclusive Education in China: Ideas, Practices, and Challenges.
By adopting a comparative approach, this book investigates the philosophy, policy, practices, and challenges of inclusive education in the Chinese contexts, recognizing influences of Chinese culture, such as Confucianism, collectivism, and familism.
In the 1980s, the Chinese government promoted a policy named “Learning in Regular Classroom” to ensure educational rights for children with disabilities, which subsequently turned into an inclusive education program in the western sense. Starting from this point, the policy and practice of inclusive education have developed tremendously. To facilitate reflection and future development, this is the latest and most comprehensive attempt at understanding the status quo of inclusive education in China from a variety of perspectives: from early childhood to higher education, from family to schools and communities, from peers to teachers and parents. It also analyzed the unique Chinese philosophy of inclusive education, adding to current debates with a Chinese lens.
Ramsay, Guy (2022). Reporting Mental Illness in China.
This book examines how Chinese-language newspapers across greater China report on severe mental illness, and why they do so in the ways they do, given that reporting in local newspapers can strongly influence how Chinese readers view the illness.
By assessing how the reporting in three leading broadsheet newspapers from mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan constructs the illness, the book considers how the distinct social and political histories of the three culturally Chinese communities shape the reporting, and whether it bears out or contests the intense stigma against the illness that prevails locally. The findings can usefully encourage and inform attempts to humanise, include, and empower those with a severe mental illness across greater China and the global Chinese diaspora.
Employing a well-tested, transparent discourse analytic approach, the book also includes numerous Chinese-English bilingual news report extracts to illustrate its claims. As such, Reporting Mental Illness in China will be of interest to sinologists, discourse analysts, mental health professionals and public health authorities across the globe, especially in places where there are large Chinese-speaking populations.
Richards, Jane. “Discrimination against Defendants with Disabilities in the Hong Kong Criminal Justice System: Unfitness to Plead Rules, the Insanity Defence and Disposition Orders”
Hong Kong Law Journal, vol. 51, 2021, pp. 875–916.
In 1996 and 1997, in recognition of the inappropriate outcomes available for people who have mental disabilities and commit crimes, the Hong Kong Government introduced legislative reforms. These reforms aimed to ensure that people with mental disabilities would not be detained indefinitely without proof that they had committed the physical element of the crime and also sought to give judges broader discretion in the range of disposition orders available. This article analyses those legislative reforms and finds that they were largely successful in achieving their policy objectives. However, in light of Hong Kong’s obligations under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the analysis also shows that Hong Kong’s legislative framework discriminates against persons with mental disabilities who are accused of criminal offences or who receive an insanity acquittal. The article concludes that further reform is needed; however, what this should look like is unclear.